In the new, globalised world, there is no dearth of alternatives. They persist and accumulate in our society as their production exceeds their chemical degradation rate. Correct incineration burns the material and the by-merchandise of the initial burning and also takes care of air and strong emissions to insure public safety. DTU Chemical Engineering’s major activities lie inside the places of item style, process design and production in the chemical, biotechnological, pharmaceutical, food technological and power technological industries. This is to inform you that Ms. Naz Khan has tendered her resignation as a Director on the Board of Engro Polymer & Chemical compounds, w.e.f November 7,2016. Their water remedy chemicals are recognized for decreasing and treating any concerns that arise in the industrial cooling systems. I think we need to have an alternative, and I think the government must have a lot more regulations regarding which chemical substances can be employed in market. Some plastics are stretched in processing to hold their shape, such as soft drink bottles. Small water and dye molecules can enter the fiber easily, but the big molecules of stain-resistant chemicals have much more difficulty penetrating the nylon. Effectively, in a nutshell, the production of nylon contains the precursors benzene (a identified human carcinogen) and hydrogen cyanide gas (extremely poisonous) the manufacturing approach releases VOCs, nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Reference: “Generating or Submitting the prior confirmation notification form for polymers related to Article 3, paragraph (1), item (vi) of the Act” published on March 25, 2010 by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Minister of Economy, Trade and Market and the Minister of the Atmosphere. It is now irresponsible to add more phathalates to the merchandise by putting the milk merchandise in plastic containers that add A lot more EDC’s. For overview evaluation, the report introduces 4-Fluoro Biphenyl simple information such as definition, classification, application, market chain structure, business overview, policy analysis, and news analysis, and so on. Engro Polymer and Chemical compounds Restricted was incorporated in Pakistan in 1997 under the now repealed Firms Ordinance, 1984. The manufacture of products from polymers demands a information and understanding of a broad variety of principles and technologies. These are very essential in many applications of polymers for films and membranes. If you happen to be after basic information on plastic materials, this is the location to uncover it. Here you are going to understand the definition and properties of polymers, one more name for plastics. For technical data and manufacturing plants analysis, the report analyzes 4-Fluoro Biphenyl top suppliers on capacity, industrial production date, manufacturing plants distribution, R&D status, technologies sources, and raw components sources. Consumers can purchase these Polymer Chemical compounds from us at industrial major price. These chemicals are a product of acrylamide. The second theory is that the polymer interacts with the elements of the Portland cement hydration products and types new complexes. Polymer Valley Chemicals maintains corporate offices, sales, and warehousing in Akron, Ohio and owns and operates two production & warehousing facilities in Macon, Georgia. Cross-linked polymers: Wide-meshed cross-linked polymers are elastomers and can not be molten (unlike thermoplastics ) heating cross-linked polymers only leads to decomposition Thermoplastic elastomers , on the other hand, are reversibly “physically crosslinked” and can be molten. Recycled polyester, also named rPET, is now accepted as a sustainable” solution in the textile industry. Essential industry participants, such as Amcor Ltd., Mondi Plc, Apex Packaging, Sealed Air Corporation, Coveris Holdings S.A., and DS Smith Plc, are involved in the manufacture, fabrication, and distribution of plastic packaging goods across the globe. For overview analysis, the report introduces Benzyl Bromide basic info like definition, classification, application, sector chain structure, market overview, policy analysis, and news evaluation, etc. On the basis of the application, the global polymer concrete industry is segmented into asphalt pavement, constructing and upkeep, industrial tanks & containments, prefabricated merchandise for drainage systems, marine functions, and other folks. We use multiple test techniques to track performance during polymer chemical resistance testing, including mechanical strength and physical properties.
Could be exposed to a variety of hazards such as corrosive chemical substances, steam, molten polymer, gear related dangers, and so on. There are a number of chemical businesses in India and all more than the planet that provide the needed chemical compounds to assist regulate the aforementioned elements. An epoxy is a material created of liquid polymer and is converted to solid polymer with proper mixture due to chemical reaction. The adhesives and sealants industry in China can be divided, primarily based on end-customers, into the following segments: Construction, packaging, wood market, fiber and leather processing, transportation, and other individuals. Because polymer chains are so lengthy, they have several such interchain interactions per molecule, amplifying the effect of these interactions on the polymer properties in comparison to attractions amongst traditional molecules. For international and China market analysis, the report analyzes 4-Fluoro Biphenyl markets in China and other nations or regions (such as US, Europe, Japan, etc) by presenting analysis on international merchandise of various varieties and applications, developments and trends of industry, technologies, competitive landscape, and major suppliers’ and countries’ 2009-2014 capacity, production, price, value, profit, production worth, and gross margin. Organic polymeric materials such as hemp , shellac , amber , wool , silk , and organic rubber have been utilised for centuries. The eye-catching forces amongst polymer chains play a big element in determining the polymer’s properties. These items assist in reaching higher efficiency and higher production. For overview analysis, the report introduces four-Nitrostyrene fundamental info like definition, classification, application, industry chain structure, business overview, policy analysis, and news evaluation, and so on. In conclusion, it is a deep study report on worldwide Benzyl Bromide business. Plastic bottles (which had been utilized for some type of customer solution) are the feedstock for what is identified as post customer recycled polyester”. Established in 2007 , Anhui Polymer Chemical substances Group has created a name for itself in the list of leading suppliers of Coal Primarily based Activated Carbon ,Flocculants in China. And this isn’t taking place any too soon: more than 1,000 customer goods containing nanomaterials are accessible in the U.S. and far more are added each day. Furthermore, a lot more emphasis on technologically advanced products is anticipated to drive demand for polymer concretes from creating & maintenance activities, industrial tanks & containments, prefabricated goods for drainage systems, and other people in the course of the forecast period 2018-2023. Hence, polyester (in typical with most polymers) begins its life in our time as crude oil Crude oil is a cocktail of elements that can be separated by industrial distillation. For business chain analysis, the report covers four-Fluoro Biphenyl upstream raw supplies, gear, downstream client survey, marketing channels, market improvement trend and proposals, which much more particularly include worthwhile information on 4-Fluoro Biphenyl essential applications and consumption, essential regions and consumption, essential worldwide distributors , major raw supplies suppliers and contact information, significant manufacturing equipment suppliers and get in touch with data, main suppliers and speak to Info, essential buyers and speak to data, and supply chain partnership report also presents four-Fluoro Biphenyl solution specification, manufacturing approach, and item cost structure and so on. Global Membrane Microfiltration Market 2014-2018, has been prepared primarily based on an in-depth industry evaluation with inputs from business professionals. According to the all round index of Industrial Production (IIP), the sector has a weightage of 14 %, which signifies the role it plays in growing the nation’s economy. The new processing approaches can impart resistance to heat as effectively as to mechanical deformation, opening up new ranges of application for polymers which have already penetrated heavily into a marketplace which used to be dominated by metals. The gel is made up of helical polymers which function molecules which twist collectively in order to type a nano rope. Polymer gel, a synthetic water-soluble polymer has been the essential ingredient that is utilized in the formulation of numerous of end-use industries. Refining raw cane sugar to produce those white cube of sugar on your table is an intricate procedure that could involve hundreds of inorganic, organic, and electrolytic materials.
The crucial players in the Flame Retardant Chemicals industry contain Akzo Nobel Polymer Chemical substances LLC, Clariant AG, Martinswerk GmbH, DIC Corporation, Dover Chemical Corporation, Royal DSM NV, ICL Industrial Merchandise, Supresta LLC, Synalloy Corporation and The Dow Chemical Business. Until milk firms have their goods quantatatively analysed for these EDC’s by competent independent laboratories, my sturdy recommendation is to avoid purchase and consumption of milk and dairy products contained in plastic. The approach chemicals utilized by the mills are employed on organic fibers just as they are utilized on polyesters and conventionally developed all-natural fibers. This report also presents Benzyl Bromide solution specification, manufacturing approach, and item expense structure and so forth. These are the major chemical cleaning goods utilised by professional cleaners in industrial settings. SAP is employed in a wide variety of applications, such as infant diapers adult incontinence items feminine hygiene items and agriculture, mining, medical, and associated applications. Global four-Nitrostyrene Industry 2015 Deep Market Investigation Report is a expert and deep analysis report in this field. PTFE or Teflon on the other hand, has a extremely higher melting point as a polymer, and is nigh not possible to use for custom tubing by way of an extrusion method, unless certain preparations are created in advance before production begins. The report contains six parts, dealing with: 1.) standard info 2.) the Asia Industrial Abrasives industry 3.) the North American Industrial Abrasives sector four.) the European Industrial Abrasives industry 5.) market entry and investment feasibility and 6.) the report conclusion. Increasing use of plastic packaging in widespread applications, like meals and beverages, private care, household care, consumer electronics, and building, is most likely to drive market growth more than the forecast period. Saudi Polymers Company is identified across the Middle East area and even in International states for quality production. Apart from becoming lightweight and versatile, nylon also facilitates higher design and style flexibility, which enables production of sophisticated shapes with no compromising the safety and stability of products. Some bioplastics do decompose to carbon dioxide and water, however, in specially made food waste commercial composting facilities ONLY. Covestro is a world-top supplier of high-tech polymer materials: revolutionary, sustainable and diverse. My business The Aircraft Wash Guys does not do the volume to afford to be in the enterprise of chemical compounds, due to the costs to make them and the more than regulations in the industry so we can’t sell you any. The sorting of polymer waste for recycling purposes may possibly be facilitated by the use of the resin identification codes developed by the Society of the Plastics Business to recognize the type of plastic. The Worldwide Rubber Processing Chemicals Industry segmented on the basis of Item, Application, and Area. Biopolymers are the structural and functional components that comprise most of the organic matter in organisms. The microstructure of a polymer (occasionally called configuration) relates to the physical arrangement of monomer residues along the backbone of the chain. Optical brighteners are a broad classification of several distinct synthetic chemical compounds that, when applied to clothing, convert UV light wavelengths to visible light, thus making laundered clothes seem “whiter.” Their inclusion in any formula does not boost or have an effect on the product’s overall performance in any way they just trick the eye. Plastic components identified below a certain code can be mixed and recycled with other plastics of the exact same code. Development of tire and automotive business has a direct influence on improvement of marketplace for rubber processing chemicals. What is also clearly missing from the Croatians’ controlled, static testing model are the temperature variations that the plastic bottled water solution goes by way of to get from bottling point to the mouth of the customer. Chemicals used for bleaching mechanical pulps which selectively destroy colouring impurities but leave the lignin and cellulose material intact. Polymers with side chains can be divided into two classes, a single (stereoregular) which has a recurring pattern in terms of stereochemistry and 1 (atactic) with no typical structure.
This report studies the worldwide Liquid-crystal Polymer market place status and forecast, categorizes the global Liquid-crystal Polymer market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, sort, application, and area. We give custom synthesis options ranging from R&D lab-scale projects to full-scale production for distinctive compounds and advanced proprietary custom components utilised in a variety of industry applications. A Convincing Firm Our position as marketplace leader is based on manufacturing high high quality goods at competitive costs. Plastics of various polymer structures and resin composition are identified by using normal codes on the basis of their melting and crushing capacity. The sample preparation and analysis of these solutions could include numerous time-consuming processes impacting the release of high-valued merchandise. Note: Chemical industries in India themselves consume around 1-third of their production. If calcium phosphate is the main concern, one of several cooling water polymers can be employed to inhibit scale formation when calcium hardness is in excess of 350 ppm, orthophosphate is more than 15 ppm, and at pH levels above 7.5. The most well-known alternatives are sulfonated styrene maleic acid (SSMA), and modified polyacrylates. Shandong IRO Polymer Chemicals Co., Ltd. Additionally, West Virginia is home to a considerable quantity of nonprofit and federal study institutions in components science and chemical engineering. PFOS and PFOA have chains of eight carbon atoms the group of materials related to PFOA and PFOS is referred to as C8 – this is typically referred to as C8 chemistry”. We have been speaking about Paper Sourcing, Chemicals Suppliers and Seafood Importer, These days paper sector is at the front position of the sustainability movement, making wonderful adjustments to lower releases and wastes. The textile sector utilizes vast amounts of water throughout all processing operations. NCC is utilized to produce raw components for a variety of products like ethylene, identified as the important creating block for a lot of industries. GreenGuard tests for the emitting chemical compounds coming from a item that indicates it tests only for evaporating chemicals, chemical compounds which are a gas at room temperature. A basic instance is polyethylene (‘polythene’ in British English), whose repeating unit is based on ethylene monomer Several other structures do exist for instance, components such as silicon form familiar components such as silicones, examples becoming Silly Putty and waterproof plumbing sealant. Expanding prominence of nylon substitutes such as polypropylene, bioabsorbable polymers, para-aramid synthetic fibers, and polyvinylidene fluoride is anticipated to hamper growth prospects of the market place. Both inorganic and organic components can be utilised to create LEDs (light-emitting diodes), such as InGaN (Indium Gallium Nitride) materials or cadmium selenide nanocrystals, where the physical procedure includes quantum-wells. The Gold level calls for products to include 95 – 100% recycled material Silver needs 70 – 95% and Bronze consists of a minimum of 30%. When buying inexpensive chemical you also want to make sure that the chemical is of great good quality or else it might have an effect on your goods and services. Investigation Beam adds a report titled Global Benzyl Bromide Market 2015 Deep Industry Research Report” that provides detailed details of the International Benzyl Bromide Market place. The U.S. Military, as nicely, is interested in chemical engineers that specialize in polymer engineering, which is the study of the synthesis of various chemical compounds, and process engineering, the study of catalyst development and fault detection and handle, as they can function with the military to create weapons. Meat and dairy items are as a result a significant contributor to this group of human meals chain derived toxins, regardless of their containment. Most conducting polymers can be made to transfer electrons to other materials such as Buckminsterfullerene(Carbon 60 “C60 Buckyball”) 13. They are in wonderful demand in industries such as petroleum, oil and gas, chemical merchandise, drugs and medicines, aerated drinks, and so on. Makers and processors introduce a variety of fillers, reinforcements and additives into the base polymers, expanding solution possibilities. BULWARK Chemical substances For Construction Materials Supplier In Gujarat, Building Supplies Supplier In India , Building Components Supplier In Ahmedabad, Building Components In Ahmedabad, Construction Materials In Gujarat, Construction Supplies In India.
Polymers are studied in the fields of polymer science (which contains polymer chemistry and polymer physics ), biophysics and supplies science and engineering Historically, products arising from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical bonds have been the main concentrate of polymer science An emerging critical location now focuses on supramolecular polymers formed by non-covalent hyperlinks. Bronze common – merchandise have a minimum of 30 percent recycled content. Our partners & principals are global market leaders in their fields, with their assistance combined with our market place intel & years of expertise we have created the excellent remedy to serve our specialist market sectors in the UK & Ireland. Polymers are components with a seemingly limitless range of characteristics and colors. The macroscopic physical properties of a polymer are related to the interactions amongst the polymer chains. Silicone is generally a significantly thinner item than a lot of of the other polymers on the marketplace. When a cleaner starts working on fabric-associated processes, there is a limited set of possibilities obtainable when it comes to items. Phthalates are EDC’s (Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.) They are chemical substances discovered in recycle codes #1 by means of #six plastics. Thermax, among the major chemical businesses in India , offers water therapy plans that are based on a thorough assessment of the approach, water chemistry, cooling requirements, and metallurgy of your industrial cooling technique. Whilst right now, we see diverse components getting utilised, some argue that there is much less effect on the environment, but they are still chemicals that kill. Plastic materials consist of a few dyes, fillers, and additives, which are not easily recyclable. From the outcomes presented here, it is clear that FD-MS is a extremely efficient analytical method for determining molecular weights of polymer chemical compounds. Each of these reactions lead to side chains so that the molecules of the polymer can’t pack with each other in a typical way. The international polymer concrete industry is segmented into 5 regions namely Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa. The GRS gives a track and trace certification method that ensures that the claims you make about a product can be officially backed up. It consists of a 3-tiered method with the Gold standard requiring merchandise to contain among 95 percent to 100 % recycled material the Silver normal calls for merchandise to be produced of in between 70 percent to 95 percent recycled item and the Bronze normal calls for products to have a minimum of 30 % recycled content material. Although forbidden in the EU, many firms have production sites or suppliers outdoors Europe, exactly where the use of NPEO is not forbidden. For technical data and manufacturing plants analysis, the report analyzes four B Acid leading suppliers on capacity, industrial production date, manufacturing plants distribution, R&D status, technologies sources, and raw materials sources. Grocery sacks and plastic bags are some of the other plastic items that can be recycled. And usually a solution is advertised as being an organic fabric” when what they imply is the fabric began out with organic fibers – but the processing, like the organic applesauce talked about above, results in fabric that contains a higher proportion, by weight, of synthetic chemicals (such as lead or mercury, formaldehyde, chlorine, or phthalates). For example, whilst the polymer is used for wiring, making furniture, clothes, property décor, prosthesis, and electronics, plastic is utilized for PVC piping, water tank creation, and building storage containers. The polymer gel market place is witnessing substantial demand from industries which includes individual care and agriculture. This estimated data is cross-checked with business experts from a variety of major businesses in the market. Chemical substances and Polymer Recruitment Options Ltd is a trading division of PREA Ltd established over 25 years ago. Worldwide 4 B Acid Business 2015 Deep Market place Study Report is a specialist and deep analysis report in this field. Ultimately the unit summarises the range of processing strategies that can be used to convert polymers into a vast variety of diverse products. Thermosetting plastics, such as epoxies, phenolics, and silicones, have cross-linked chains. Element’s Engaged Professionals have considerable expertise in reviewing polymer chemical resistance for oilfield applications.
Sunbrella fabrics have been certified by GreenGuard Children and Schools due to the fact the chemical compounds utilised in acrylic production are bound in the polymer – in other words, they do not evaporate. This takes place in the polymerization of PET polyester The monomers are terephthalic acid (HOOC—C6H4—COOH) and ethylene glycol (HO—CH2—CH2—OH) but the repeating unit is —OC—C6H4—COO—CH2—CH2——, which corresponds to the mixture of the two monomers with the loss of two water molecules. Polymers can also make attainable items that do not readily come from the all-natural planet, such as clear sheets and versatile films. An selection for plastics that are not recycled, especially these that are soiled, such as employed food wrap or diapers, can be a waste-to-power system (WTE). Mitsubishi Chemical is also doing the development, the production and the sale of the compound which give a new function to BioPBSusing excellent compatibility and biodegradablility of BioPBS. We test a wide spectrum of properties that could be impacted by fluid interactions, like mechanical strength, chemical deterioration and material swelling. After these polymers are formed, reheating will result in the material to in the end degrade, but not melt. The textile industry’s chemically infused effluent – filled with PBDEs, phthalates, organochlorines, lead and a host of other chemicals that have been proven to lead to a assortment of human overall health concerns – is routinely dumped into our waterways untreated. Plastic manufacturing now uses four% of the world’s oil production annually. We are an International Recruitment Specialist organization for the Chemical and Polymer (Plastics Rubber, Composites, Polyurethane, Adhesives & Textile) market. Indian advantage lies in the production of necessary chemicals that are also referred to as commodity chemicals. Many application locations can be identified in which FD-MS can play an critical part in the characterization of nolymer chemicals in industry. According to Brainly, more than 80% of chemical organizations in India and around the planet are focused on making polymers and plastics. With respect to migration properties, pick additives that are appropriate for the atmosphere in which the plastic product will be used (specifically with regard to temperature). Worldwide Antimony Industry, has been ready primarily based on an in-depth industry evaluation, with inputs from market professionals. Akzo Nobel Polymer Chemical substances has agreed to divest its ADC Monomer company to Excellent Lakes Chemical substances Corporation for an undisclosed quantity. Recycled plastics are utilized to make polymeric timbers for use in picnic tables, fences and outside playgrounds, thus offering low maintenance, no splinters merchandise and saving all-natural lumber. 740 manufacturing gear for polymer chemical compounds stock photographs, vectors, and illustrations are offered royalty-free. India ranks 3rd in creating agrochemicals globally. In reality, according to the new 2009 Conscious Consumer Report from BBMG , there are now more than 400 distinct certifications associated to green” and environmental attributes of products and solutions. Integrated in this group of chemical auto care merchandise are such supplies as polyurethane, polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE), and polyisocyanate. Moreover, they are also utilized as raw components for generating high temperature fuel cells in the chemical manufacturing business. For the duration of the polymerization approach, some chemical groups could be lost from every single monomer. The majority of polymers are derived from oil chemicals, despite the fact that there are some naturally occurring polymers such as organic rubber and cellulose. In conclusion, it is a deep investigation report on global four-Fluoro Biphenyl market. For international and China industry evaluation, the report analyzes Benzyl Bromide markets in China and other nations or regions (such as US, Europe, Japan, and so forth) by presenting research on international goods of distinct types and applications, developments and trends of industry, technology, competitive landscape, and major suppliers’ and countries’ 2009-2014 capacity, production, cost, price tag, profit, production value, and gross margin. International Sourcing companies like KPL international in India provide all the needed raw supplies, with very good good quality and low cost prices. That indicates that the chemical substances utilised throughout processing – the optical brighteners, texturizers, dyes, softeners, detergents, bleaches and all other people – almost certainly include some of the chemical compounds which have been found to be dangerous to living issues.
The classic example is intersex attributes in fish (suppression of testes development in males), with other reproductive effects and anomalies in one particular study, egg production of zebrafish, exposed to wastewater effluent contaminated with APEOs, was lowered by up to 89.6% (5) other research located a decreased percentage of fertilized eggs, decreased embroyo survival, and abmormal embroys (6) These results and other studies indicate that the reproductive possible of native fishes may be compromised in wastewater-dominated streams due to the presence of alkylphenyls (7). Chemical testing of polymers and plastics is needed to make certain that a material is suitable for its intended application. To make the chain, a lot of hyperlinks or -mers” are chemically hooked or polymerized with each other. When several molecules of a basic compound join together, the product is termed a polymer and the process polymerization. High temperature resistant polymers are created from chemical compounds utilizing a a variety of method, the most well-known one particular being the chain reaction polymerization. Moreover numerous other chemical reactions of isocyanates are utilized to modify or extend the range of isocyanate based plastic materials. Another solution to the difficulty is the use of a thermal de-polymerization approach, which requires conversion of assorted polymers into petroleum. The Global Recycle Normal (): This brand new normal was developed to help confirm claims regarding recycled merchandise. LOTTE Chemical manufactures higher-strength and high-permeability hollow fiber membranes utilizing its in-house developed technologies and has been expanding the marketplace share with applications in sewage and wastewater facilities. As opposed to Mr. McGuire, I believe we can pick a much better future by avoiding his “a single word.” We should begin by trying to decrease plastics in our food chain exposures. LOTTE Chemical’s construction and interior components, which offer outstanding aesthetics and functionality with no the shortcomings of natural stone, are extensively applied to various interior and exterior spaces that generate stunning and comfortable living arrangements. Sumika Chemical Evaluation Service has a wealth of experience in handling a wide range of polymers and has the capability to perform the Polymer Flow Scheme (PFS) Tests to meet Kanshiho (Japanese Chemical Substances Manage Law, CSCL) needs. Scientists and engineers are usually producing a lot more beneficial components by manipulating the molecular structure that impacts the final polymer made. For overview analysis, the report introduces four B Acid basic information including definition, classification, application, sector chain structure, industry overview, policy analysis, and news analysis, and so on. The skilled graduates can seek career in the upstream and downstream polymer industries such as the polymerization plants, petrochemical industries (Petronas) plastic industries, rubber industries, latex industries, composite industries, automotive industries, electronic industries, healthcare industries, pharmaceutical industries, aerospace industries, paint industries, textile industries etc. The Company’s engineered products allow approach and product innovation and lessen emissions and waste. Rubber processing chemicals impart superior performance under extreme weather conditions to the rubber items. Our goods have been produced to sustain their efficiency in the harshest environments: each and every a single with the particular combination of properties necessary for exceptional heat resistance and chemical inertness, strength and toughness, lightweighting and design flexibility, biocompatibility and numerous far more. In mature markets such as North America and Western Europe, stagnating or even declining consumption of PET polymer has been observed more than the past 5 years, mainly the result of rising polyester solution imports from price-advantaged producers in the Middle East and Asia. For technical information and manufacturing plants analysis, the report analyzes 4-Chloronitrobenzene top suppliers on capacity, commercial production date, manufacturing plants distribution, R&D status, technologies sources, and raw components sources. Prior to the year 1991, chemical importers or exporters and polymer suppliers identified it practically not possible to conduct enterprise in the country, as the Government had imposed some actually higher duty fees and a lot of restrictions on conducting organization with foreign primarily based organizations.